Avocado requires high levels of potassium and manganese. The crop is sensitive to sodium and chloride. Chloride toxicity strongly decreases growth and filling of fruits and causes necrosis of leaf margins. Sodium toxicity causes leave chlorosis and necrosis. The avocado tree is remarkably versatile as to soil adaptability, doing well on diverse soil types as red clay, sand, volcanic loam, lateritic soils, or limestone. The desirable pH level is generally between 6 and 7. The tree's primary requirement is good drainage. It cannot stand excessive soil moisture or even temporary waterlogging. The water-table should be at least 0.9 m below the surface. Temperatures as low as -4°C do little harm. Strong winds reduce humidity, dehydrates the flowers, interferes with pollination, and causes many fruits to fall prematurely.